VIVES baldosas porcelanicas
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GLOSSARY
A
Abrasion: The damage on the surface of the tile made by friction over time
Adhesive: The substance used to stick the tile to the substrate
Adhesive material: Material used to fix the tile mechanically or chemically or both. Concrete Portland, cement based adhesive, dispersion adhesive or adhesive via reaction
Alternative: Product with different patterns
Anti-ice: A tile with properties that make it resistant to ice
Anti-slip: Floor tile with properties that resist risks of slip
Autolevelled: Capacity of (fresh mortar / I Cement) spread out on its own accord to form a flat surface.
B
Baldosín catalán: Tiles with a very high water absorption rate made by extrusion and not glazed
BIM: BIM. (Building Information Modeling) is the process of data generation and management of a building during its life cycle.
Biscuit: Fired unglazed clay and porous
Breaking point: Measurement associated to the mechanical resistance of the tile according to the ISO 10545-4 norm
Bush Hammered: The finish of a tile that simulates the finish of some natural stone.
To butt joint tiles: To fix tiles without any space between them. An installation that is not recommended.
C
Calibre: Manufacturing measurement
Cement: Hydraulic binder which, when mixed with water forms a paste that hardens by hydration
Chemical Resistance: Character of the materials that do not change when in contact with chemical substances on the surface of the tile
Chip: Detachment of a portion of glass which has more or less cleanly broken off, being subjected to heavy compression
Clay: Very fine grounded material that is moulded when it is wet and hardened once again when it is wet and fired.
Concrete: Mixture of Portland cement, sand and water. Pasty material used to cover walls, partitions and ceilings of a building.
Crazing: Micro cracking that appears in the glaze during a long period of time due to the slow movement of the tile either because of expansion due to humidity in porous tiles or due to the contraction of the adhesive behind the tile
D
Density: The relationship between the volume and dry weight.
Double Adhesive Method: Method of fixing the tile using adhesive on the surface of where the tile is to be placed as well as on the rear-side of the tile
Dry Pressed: The usual mould used for producing ceramic tiles: wall tiles, floor tiles and porcelain tiles. These are group B
Dual-Fired: The base is fired without being glazed, then the glaze is applied and it is fired once again
E
Effloresces: Soluble salt crystals deposited on the surface of the tile, usually on clay fired tiles. This can be removed with an acidic based cleaning agent
Extrusion: By this method, a elastic mass is forced to form a continuous cylinder that can be cut to achieve the final pieces
F
Firing: Heating of the pieces according to an established firing plan and then later cooled following the same plan often called the firing cycle.
Floor Tiles: Compact and opaque ceramic body that becomes tough and non-porous and fires at high temperature (1300°C)
Frit: Mix of different material to form the glaze. Glaze is calcined and pulverized
Frita: A mixture of materials used to prepare the glaze.
G
Glaze: Tiles are covered by a vitreous substance in order to brighten and colour them permanently.
Grout: Material and action to fill the gaps between the tiles. Material must be of the correct type according to the grout width and according to the application of the tile.
H
Hardness: Resistance to wear and scratches.
Heated floor: Heating system located under the floor tile
Hydro-cut: To cut special pieces in tiles by using water jet.
I
Impact resistance: The ability of ceramic tile to resist breakage either throughout the body or as surface chipping- as the result of a heavy blow. In general, ceramic tile is not a resilient material and care should be taken to avoid dropping heavy or sharp objects on its surface
Incision: Slot that allows the piece be held in a facade
Invisible Clamp: System to anchor ceramic tiles on walls and facades. The clamp that is placed in a cavity made in the tile provides security against detachment
J
Grout joints: Minimum recommended gap between tiles
Minimum Joint: Fixing the tile with a joint gap that is less than 3mm
Open Joint: Fixing the tile with a joint gap that is greater than 3mm
K
Kaolinite clay: White clay. Very pure, employee as a basic ingredient in the clay of porcelain products.
L
Leveler: a system used to fix ceramic floor tiles in order to avoid any deviations in the flatness of the area being tiled.
Losange: Shaped at each end as a rhombus so that the acute angles interlink with the other profiles
Loss of Shine and Gloss: Deterioration of the surface of the gloss and shine on the surface of the tile.
M
Mesh: A mosaic is placed on this material so that the pieces become one piece
Modular: A porcelain tile that requires the fixer to follow the indicated grout lines
Mohs: The product resistance against scratches from minerals and dirt is measured by the Mohs Scale to establish its surface toughness
Monoporosa: Commercial name given to tiles that are fired once and used to clad the walls
Mosaic (ceramic): Small sized tiles and usually set on a small mesh
Mould: Any object used to obtain a second piece
N
Natural: A finished ceramic product that has not been given any additional process to its surface
UNE 138002:2017: General rules for the installation of ceramic tiles with bonding materials.
O
Offset Fixing: Fix the tiles with the grout lines offset to the border of the covered area
Open Time: Maximum time indicated by the manufacturer, in which the bonding material retains its properties
P
PEI: Test method that evaluates the resistance to surface wear
Pointer tool: Tool used to finish the fixing joints
Pointing: Layers of lime mortar, cement or both. It is used to cover walls.
Polished: Treatment that softens and brightens the face of the tile
Porcelain tiles: Ceramic product with a low water absorption rate. (<0´5%)
Porosity: Volume of pores relative to volume of tile body and capable of absorbing moisture
Primer: The face side of the tile is covered by a mix of white clays to cover the dark colour of the clay
Pyrometer: Instrument for measuring the temperature of the kiln
R
Raw piece: A tile that is unfired. This term is used when the tile is dry and awaiting to be fired for the first time.
Rectangularity: It is said of the right angle between the sides of a ceramic tile. The maximum deviation from rectangularity, in percent, related to the corresponding work sizes
Rectified: Porcelain tile with edges dimensionally cut
Resistance to Ice: Resistance of the tile to ice without changes in the appearance and/or its internal structure
Resistance to Pedestrian Wear: Classification of the tile according to its capacity to withstand pedestrian traffic on a floor tile
Resistance to Staining: Classification of tile according to how difficult it is to eliminate stains
Ribbed back: Rear of tile. The side of the tile that is not glazed.
Rubber mallet: A tool with a rubber head used to ensure that the tile is correctly fixed.
S
International Standard 13006:2016: Defines terms and establishes classifications, characteristics and marking requirements for ceramic tiles of the best commercial quality (first quality). ISO 13006:2016 is not applicable to tiles made by other than normal processes of extrusion or dry pressing, used for flooring and walls indoors and / or outdoors
Satin glaze: Glaze that produces a low-gloss finish
Sealing Material: Synthetic material with deformable properties used to cover movement joints
Shaded: A product with a wide variety of shades and patterns which are part of the design. Installation should be carried out by mixing pieces from different boxes.
Shine: Decoration by depositing a thin metal layer on the surface
Silkscreen: Way of printing by diffusion of glaze (ink) through a weave
Single Fired: Firing the biscuit and glaze once
Slip: Action and affect of slipping. Measured by the tests UNE-ENV 12633, DIN 51130, DIN 51097...
Spacer lugs: Projections which are located along certain edges of tiles so that when two tiles are placed together, in line, the lugs on adjacent edges separate the tiles by a distance not less than the specified width of the joint
Specific heat: The number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1°C, or the number of BTU's per pound per degree F. In our products reaches values between 840 and 990 J / Kg K.
Stair Side: Special piece used for stair decoration, next to the steps
Step Tread: Step riser with a technical finish in the front that is mittered
Support: Surface on which the ceramic tiles are placed.
T
Tabica Tile: Ceramic tile piece used to cover the front of a step
Terracotta: A clay fired at a low temperature. It is a reddish or yellow and reddish colour
Tesela: Small piece ceramics used to form a mosaic
Thermal Conductivity: The physical property of materials that measures heat conduction capacity. In ceramic tiles it is less than 2.3W/m·K
Thick Bed: Method to fix the tile with adhesive using a comb of greater than 5mm.
Thickness: The width of the tile taking into account relief on the base of the tile
Thin Bed: Method to fix the tile with adhesive using a comb of less than 5mm
Third-fired: To decorate by silkscreen a tile which has already been glazed and fired
To tile: The action to fix the tile to the floor or wall
Toba: A tile manufactured using an artisan and rustic method
Tone (Tone spectrum and texture): The tone sets the product's degree of coloration, brightness, the design's surface and texture. Tone and colour variations are natural in all wall and floor tiles, which are put through a firing process at high temperatures. Each piece experiences individual reactions that generate a slight variation on its glaze. This brings the piece nearer to its natural roots with which it is made up of. Variations on tone and colour are inherent in all ceramic products (those composed of clay) that are fired  at high temperatures
Transit Intensity: Associated to the resistance to surface-appearance loss for tiles which are subjected to intensive traffic
Trencadís: Mosaic with irregular cut pieces, with different shapes and colours
Trowel: A tool that consists of an iron or steel sheet and a handle, used by fixers to spread and smooth the adhesiv
W
Wall Tile: The traditional name given to a ceramic piece with high water absorption, moulded when dry, glazed and manufactured by firing
Warpage: The measurement of curvature whether concave or convex in the ceramic tile with respect to a horizontal plane.
Wastage: Quantity required for wastage due to cutting etc. If the installation is complicated or a lot of cutting is involved the amount for wastage may need to be increased 10 to 15 per cent.
Waterproofing: Capacity of the ceramic tile to impede the movement of water
Watertight: Characteristics of materials ceramics which stop the flow of water through them.
White Biscuit: Wall tile made with clays of high kaolins