: The damage on the surface of the tile made by friction over time
Abrasion Finishing: Finishing that is carried out with a pumice stone or other similar abrasive material. The procedure is similar to polishing an object but without reaching the point when it becomes shiny so that the surface becomes smooth but still completely matt.
Adhesive: The substance used to stick the tile to the substrate
Adhesive material: Material used to fix the tile mechanically or chemically or both. Concrete Portland, cement based adhesive, dispersion adhesive or adhesive via reaction
Alternative: Product with different patterns
Alumina: Also called aluminum oxide. Al2O3. It is in the form of pure crystals, like corundum. When used in ceramics, the resistance to scratches on the ceramic glaze increases.
: A tile with properties that make it resistant to ice
: Floor tile with properties that resist risks of slip
Autolevelled: Capacity of (fresh mortar / I Cement) spread out on its own accord to form a flat surface.
Baldosín catalán: Tiles with a very high water absorption rate made by extrusion and not glazed
BIM: BIM. (Building Information Modeling) is the process of data generation and management of a building during its life cycle.
: Fired unglazed clay and porous
: Measurement associated to the mechanical resistance of the tile according to the ISO 10545-4 norm
: The finish of a tile that simulates the finish of some natural stone.
To butt joint tiles: To fix tiles without any space between them. An installation that is not recommended.
: Manufacturing measurement
Cement: Hydraulic binder which, when mixed with water forms a paste that hardens by hydration
Ceramic Collection: A set of ceramic products that are related to each other. Formed by a main base (Nassau, Hanami, etc) and all its complements.
Ceramic Sheet: Commercial denomination of ceramic tiles of very small thickness (3-6mm), with lengths up to 3600mm and widths between 900 and 1500mm. With very low water absorption (<0.5%). Generally not glazed (UGL). Suitable for the cladding of facades and interior walls.
Chamotte: Ceramic materials that have been fired, ground and reduced to grains of various thicknesses. Adding chamotte to the clay improves the texture, reduces shrinkage and prevents cracking during the firing.
: Character of the materials that do not change when in contact with chemical substances on the surface of the tile
Chip: Detachment of a portion of glass which has more or less cleanly broken off, being subjected to heavy compression
: Very fine grounded material that is moulded when it is wet and hardened once again when it is wet and fired.
Concrete: Mixture of Portland cement, sand and water. Pasty material used to cover walls, partitions and ceilings of a building.
Crazing: Micro cracking that appears in the glaze during a long period of time due to the slow movement of the tile either because of expansion due to humidity in porous tiles or due to the contraction of the adhesive behind the tile
: Dynamic coefficient of friction, is a measurement that determines how much friction there is on wet, level floors when walked upon. DCOF AcuTest®.This test complies with the ANSI A137.1 test procedure. Measurements are made with the BOT-3000, an automated and portable device that measures DCOF.
Density: The relationship between the volume and dry weight.
Double Adhesive Method: Method of fixing the tile using adhesive on the surface of where the tile is to be placed as well as on the rear-side of the tile
: The usual mould used for producing ceramic tiles: wall tiles, floor tiles and porcelain tiles. These are group B
: The base is fired without being glazed, then the glaze is applied and it is fired once again
Effloresces: Soluble salt crystals deposited on the surface of the tile, usually on clay fired tiles. This can be removed with an acidic based cleaning agent
EN 14111: Ceramic tiles: Definition, classification , characteristics, assessment and verification of constancey of performance and marking.
Expansion Joints: They are used to absorb the movements and stresses that can be caused in the substrate as well as within the tile itself.
: By this method, a elastic mass is forced to form a continuous cylinder that can be cut to achieve the final pieces
Fire resistance: According to European Commission decision 96/603/EC, all ceramic tiles that have received no organic treatment are classified, without any need for testing , in class A1 of reaction to fire.
A1 in ceramic tiles intended for wall tiling.
A1fl in ceramic tiles intended for flooring.
: Heating of the pieces according to an established firing plan and then later cooled following the same plan often called the firing cycle.
: Compact and opaque ceramic body that becomes tough and non-porous and fires at high temperature (1300°C)
Flux: Substance that melts and causes other components to melt, for example feldspar.
Frit: Mix of different material to form the glaze. Glaze is calcined and pulverized
: A mixture of materials used to prepare the glaze.
: Tiles are covered by a vitreous substance in order to brighten and colour them permanently.
Grout: Material and action to fill the gaps between the tiles. Material must be of the correct type according to the grout width and according to the application of the tile.
Grouting Time: The minimum time required after fixing the tiles, after which grouting the material can be applied to the joints
: Resistance to wear and scratches.
Heated floor: Heating system located under the floor tile
: To cut special pieces in tiles by using water jet.
Impact resistance: The ability of ceramic tile to resist breakage either throughout the body or as surface chipping- as the result of a heavy blow. In general, ceramic tile is not a resilient material and care should be taken to avoid dropping heavy or sharp objects on its surface
: Slot that allows the piece be held in a facade
: System to anchor ceramic tiles on walls and facades. The clamp that is placed in a cavity made in the tile provides security against detachment
ISO 13006: 2018: Ceramic Tiles – Definitions, classification, characteristics and marking. This document defines terms and establishes classifications, characteristics and marking requirements for ceramic tiles of the best commercial quality (first quality).
: Minimum recommended gap between tiles
: Fixing the tile with a joint gap that is less than 3mm
Open Joint: Fixing the tile with a joint gap that is greater than 3mm
Kaolinite clay: White clay. Very pure, employee as a basic ingredient in the clay of porcelain products.
Lappato: Smooth finish like polished products but without reaching the reflective shine of these. You can see two depths, a matt level and a bright level.
Lay the floor: Process of laying a ceramic pavement. Place ceramic tiles on a more or less horizontal floor or surface.
: a system used to fix ceramic floor tiles in order to avoid any deviations in the flatness of the area being tiled.
: Fixing system that ensures that there is a flatness between the tiles avoiding any movements during the setting and drying of the mortar.
Losange: Shaped at each end as a rhombus so that the acute angles interlink with the other profiles
Loss of Shine and Gloss: Deterioration of the surface of the gloss and shine on the surface of the tile.
Lot: Set of ceramic tiles belonging to the same tone and caliber of manufacture that is identified in the packing and supply sheet.
: A mosaic is placed on this material so that the pieces become one piece
Miter solution for finishing a corner
: To tile a corner with a miter solution, three special tile pieces: 2 pieces to tile the right/left miter (Y). 1 cut piece (1/2 X), each half fixed with the full sized pieces (X).
: A porcelain tile that requires the fixer to follow the indicated grout lines
: The product resistance against scratches from minerals and dirt is measured by the Mohs Scale to establish its surface toughness
Moisture Expansion: Increased measurement of the ceramic tile exposed to the action of moisture (mm/m).
Monoporosa: Commercial name given to tiles that are fired once and used to clad the walls
: Small sized tiles and usually set on a small mesh
: Any object used to obtain a second piece
: A finished ceramic product that has not been given any additional process to its surface
: Fix the tiles with the grout lines offset to the border of the covered area
Open Time: Maximum time indicated by the manufacturer, in which the bonding material retains its properties
Orthogonality: Property of the sides of the ceramic tiles that form a right angle with another side or with another edge.
Panelled: Installation of ceramic tiles by adherence to a vertical stand outdoors.
: Test method that evaluates the resistance to surface wear
Perimeter joint: Space to be left around the edges of the tiled flooring where it meets other elements such as walls, pillars and different level elevations.
: Tool used to finish the fixing joints
Pointing: Layers of lime mortar, cement or both. It is used to cover walls.
: Treatment that softens and brightens the face of the tile
: Ceramic product with a low water absorption rate. (<0´5%)
Porosity: Volume of pores relative to volume of tile body and capable of absorbing moisture
: The face side of the tile is covered by a mix of white clays to cover the dark colour of the clay
PVD (Phisical Vapor deposition).: Technology used to coat surfaces with vaporized metals.
Pyrometer: Instrument for measuring the temperature of the kiln
Raw piece: A tile that is unfired. This term is used when the tile is dry and awaiting to be fired for the first time.
: It is said of the right angle between the sides of a ceramic tile. The maximum deviation from rectangularity, in percent, related to the corresponding work sizes
: Porcelain tile with edges dimensionally cut
Resistance to Ice
: Resistance of the tile to ice without changes in the appearance and/or its internal structure
Resistance to Pedestrian Wear: Classification of the tile according to its capacity to withstand pedestrian traffic on a floor tile
Resistance to Staining: Classification of tile according to how difficult it is to eliminate stains
Ribbed back: Rear of tile. The side of the tile that is not glazed.
: A tool with a rubber head used to ensure that the tile is correctly fixed.
International Standard 13006:2018: Defines terms and establishes classifications, characteristics and marking requirements for ceramic tiles of the best commercial quality (first quality). ISO 13006:2016 is not applicable to tiles made by other than normal processes of extrusion or dry pressing, used for flooring and walls indoors and / or outdoors
Satin glaze: Glaze that produces a low-gloss finish
Sealing Material: Synthetic material with deformable properties used to cover movement joints
: A product with a wide variety of shades and patterns which are part of the design. Installation should be carried out by mixing pieces from different boxes.
: Decoration by depositing a thin metal layer on the surface
: Way of printing by diffusion of glaze (ink) through a weave
: Firing the biscuit and glaze once
Skirting board: It is a lower frieze of a wall. Complementary piece of ceramics that is placed in the base.
: Action and affect of slipping. Measured by the tests UNE-ENV 12633, DIN 51130, DIN 51097...
Solar reflectivity: The LEED environmental classification system requests the solar reflectance index (ISR), especially for roofs / terraces. Color is the most important aspect for solar reflectance and SRI. The SRI is calculated in accordance with ASTM E1980-01, which describes the standard practice for calculating the Solar Reflectance Index of horizontal and low-slope opaque surfaces.
Spacer lugs: Projections which are located along certain edges of tiles so that when two tiles are placed together, in line, the lugs on adjacent edges separate the tiles by a distance not less than the specified width of the joint
Specific heat: The number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1°C, or the number of BTU's per pound per degree F. In our products reaches values between 840 and 990 J / Kg K.
: Special piece used for stair decoration, next to the steps
Step footprint: Horizontal plane of the step or step where the foot sits.
: Step riser with a technical finish in the front that is mittered
Support: Surface on which the ceramic tiles are placed.
: Ceramic tile piece used to cover the front of a step
: A clay fired at a low temperature. It is a reddish or yellow and reddish colour
Tesela: Small piece ceramics used to form a mosaic
Thermal Conductivity: The physical property of materials that measures heat conduction capacity. In ceramic tiles it is less than 2.3W/m·K
Thick Bed: Method to fix the tile with adhesive using a comb of greater than 5mm.
Thickness: The width of the tile taking into account relief on the base of the tile
Thin Bed: Method to fix the tile with adhesive using a comb of less than 5mm
: To decorate by silkscreen a tile which has already been glazed and fired
To tile: The action to fix the tile to the floor or wall
: A tile manufactured using an artisan and rustic method
Tolerance: The margin in which a tile’s sizing difference / warping, is accepted.
Tone (Tone spectrum and texture)
: The tone sets the product's degree of coloration, brightness, the design's surface and texture. Tone and colour variations are natural in all wall and floor tiles, which are put through a firing process at high temperatures. Each piece experiences individual reactions that generate a slight variation on its glaze. This brings the piece nearer to its natural roots with which it is made up of. Variations on tone and colour are inherent in all ceramic products (those composed of clay) that are fired at high temperatures
Transit Intensity: Associated to the resistance to surface-appearance loss for tiles which are subjected to intensive traffic
: Mosaic with irregular cut pieces, with different shapes and colours
: A tool that consists of an iron or steel sheet and a handle, used by fixers to spread and smooth the adhesiv
UNE 138002: 2017: Standard that defines the quality of ceramic wall tiles and aims to establish the general rules and associated processes for the design, selection of materials, preparation, installation delivery and ongoing maintenance of ceramic systems that must be contemplated in order to guarantee their quality and durability as well as their technical and aesthetic benefits.
: The traditional name given to a ceramic piece with high water absorption, moulded when dry, glazed and manufactured by firing
Warpage: The measurement of curvature whether concave or convex in the ceramic tile with respect to a horizontal plane.
Wastage: Quantity required for wastage due to cutting etc. If the installation is complicated or a lot of cutting is involved the amount for wastage may need to be increased 10 to 15 per cent.
Waterproofing: Capacity of the ceramic tile to impede the movement of water
Watertight: Characteristics of materials ceramics which stop the flow of water through them.
: Wall tile made with clays of high kaolins
Work size (W): Measure envisaged in the manufacture of the tiles and to which the actual measurement must be adjusted within the limits of tolerance.