Abrasion Finishing: Finishing that is carried out with a pumice stone or other similar abrasive material. The procedure is similar to polishing an object but without reaching the point when it becomes shiny so that the surface becomes smooth but still completely matt.
Adhesive material: Material used to fix the tile mechanically or chemically or both. Concrete Portland, cement based adhesive, dispersion adhesive or adhesive via reaction
Alumina: Also called aluminum oxide. Al2O3. It is in the form of pure crystals, like corundum. When used in ceramics, the resistance to scratches on the ceramic glaze increases.
Autolevelled: Capacity of (fresh mortar / I Cement) spread out on its own accord to form a flat surface.
BIM: BIM. (Building Information Modeling) is the process of data generation and management of a building during its life cycle.
Breaking point: Measurement associated to the mechanical resistance of the tile according to the ISO 10545-4 norm
To butt joint tiles: To fix tiles without any space between them. An installation that is not recommended.
Ceramic Collection: A set of ceramic products that are related to each other. Formed by a main base (Nassau, Hanami, etc) and all its complements.
Ceramic Sheet: Commercial denomination of ceramic tiles of very small thickness (3-6mm), with lengths up to 3600mm and widths between 900 and 1500mm. With very low water absorption (<0.5%). Generally not glazed (UGL). Suitable for the cladding of facades and interior walls.
Chamotte: Ceramic materials that have been fired, ground and reduced to grains of various thicknesses. Adding chamotte to the clay improves the texture, reduces shrinkage and prevents cracking during the firing.
Chemical Resistance: Character of the materials that do not change when in contact with chemical substances on the surface of the tile
Chip: Detachment of a portion of glass which has more or less cleanly broken off, being subjected to heavy compression
Clay: Very fine grounded material that is moulded when it is wet and hardened once again when it is wet and fired.
Concrete: Mixture of Portland cement, sand and water. Pasty material used to cover walls, partitions and ceilings of a building.
Crazing: Micro cracking that appears in the glaze during a long period of time due to the slow movement of the tile either because of expansion due to humidity in porous tiles or due to the contraction of the adhesive behind the tile
DCOF: Dynamic coefficient of friction, is a measurement that determines how much friction there is on wet, level floors when walked upon. DCOF AcuTest®.This test complies with the ANSI A137.1 test procedure. Measurements are made with the BOT-3000, an automated and portable device that measures DCOF.
Double Adhesive Method: Method of fixing the tile using adhesive on the surface of where the tile is to be placed as well as on the rear-side of the tile
Dry Pressed: The usual mould used for producing ceramic tiles: wall tiles, floor tiles and porcelain tiles. These are group B
Dual-Fired: The base is fired without being glazed, then the glaze is applied and it is fired once again
Effloresces: Soluble salt crystals deposited on the surface of the tile, usually on clay fired tiles. This can be removed with an acidic based cleaning agent
EN 14111: Ceramic tiles: Definition, classification , characteristics, assessment and verification of constancey of performance and marking.
Expansion Joints: They are used to absorb the movements and stresses that can be caused in the substrate as well as within the tile itself.
Extrusion: By this method, a elastic mass is forced to form a continuous cylinder that can be cut to achieve the final pieces
Fire resistance: According to European Commission decision 96/603/EC, all ceramic tiles that have received no organic treatment are classified, without any need for testing , in class A1 of reaction to fire.
A1 in ceramic tiles intended for wall tiling.
A1fl in ceramic tiles intended for flooring.
A1 in ceramic tiles intended for wall tiling.
A1fl in ceramic tiles intended for flooring.
Firing: Heating of the pieces according to an established firing plan and then later cooled following the same plan often called the firing cycle.
Floor Tiles: Compact and opaque ceramic body that becomes tough and non-porous and fires at high temperature (1300°C)
Grout: Material and action to fill the gaps between the tiles. Material must be of the correct type according to the grout width and according to the application of the tile.
Grouting Time: The minimum time required after fixing the tiles, after which grouting the material can be applied to the joints
Impact resistance: The ability of ceramic tile to resist breakage either throughout the body or as surface chipping- as the result of a heavy blow. In general, ceramic tile is not a resilient material and care should be taken to avoid dropping heavy or sharp objects on its surface
Invisible Clamp: System to anchor ceramic tiles on walls and facades. The clamp that is placed in a cavity made in the tile provides security against detachment
Kaolinite clay: White clay. Very pure, employee as a basic ingredient in the clay of porcelain products.
Lappato: Smooth finish like polished products but without reaching the reflective shine of these. You can see two depths, a matt level and a bright level.
Lay the floor: Process of laying a ceramic pavement. Place ceramic tiles on a more or less horizontal floor or surface.
Leveler: a system used to fix ceramic floor tiles in order to avoid any deviations in the flatness of the area being tiled.
Leveling system: Fixing system that ensures that there is a flatness between the tiles avoiding any movements during the setting and drying of the mortar.
Loss of Shine and Gloss: Deterioration of the surface of the gloss and shine on the surface of the tile.
Lot: Set of ceramic tiles belonging to the same tone and caliber of manufacture that is identified in the packing and supply sheet.
Mohs: The product resistance against scratches from minerals and dirt is measured by the Mohs Scale to establish its surface toughness
Moisture Expansion: Increased measurement of the ceramic tile exposed to the action of moisture (mm/m).
Open Time: Maximum time indicated by the manufacturer, in which the bonding material retains its properties
Orthogonality: Property of the sides of the ceramic tiles that form a right angle with another side or with another edge.
Perimeter joint: Space to be left around the edges of the tiled flooring where it meets other elements such as walls, pillars and different level elevations.
Primer: The face side of the tile is covered by a mix of white clays to cover the dark colour of the clay
Raw piece: A tile that is unfired. This term is used when the tile is dry and awaiting to be fired for the first time.
Rectangularity: It is said of the right angle between the sides of a ceramic tile. The maximum deviation from rectangularity, in percent, related to the corresponding work sizes
Resistance to Ice: Resistance of the tile to ice without changes in the appearance and/or its internal structure
Resistance to Pedestrian Wear: Classification of the tile according to its capacity to withstand pedestrian traffic on a floor tile
International Standard 13006:2018: Defines terms and establishes classifications, characteristics and marking requirements for ceramic tiles of the best commercial quality (first quality). ISO 13006:2016 is not applicable to tiles made by other than normal processes of extrusion or dry pressing, used for flooring and walls indoors and / or outdoors
Shaded: A product with a wide variety of shades and patterns which are part of the design. Installation should be carried out by mixing pieces from different boxes.
Skirting board: It is a lower frieze of a wall. Complementary piece of ceramics that is placed in the base.
Solar reflectivity: The LEED environmental classification system requests the solar reflectance index (ISR), especially for roofs / terraces. Color is the most important aspect for solar reflectance and SRI. The SRI is calculated in accordance with ASTM E1980-01, which describes the standard practice for calculating the Solar Reflectance Index of horizontal and low-slope opaque surfaces.
Spacer lugs: Projections which are located along certain edges of tiles so that when two tiles are placed together, in line, the lugs on adjacent edges separate the tiles by a distance not less than the specified width of the joint
Specific heat: The number of calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1°C, or the number of BTU's per pound per degree F. In our products reaches values between 840 and 990 J / Kg K.
Thermal Conductivity: The physical property of materials that measures heat conduction capacity. In ceramic tiles it is less than 2.3W/m·K
Tone (Tone spectrum and texture): The tone sets the product's degree of coloration, brightness, the design's surface and texture. Tone and colour variations are natural in all wall and floor tiles, which are put through a firing process at high temperatures. Each piece experiences individual reactions that generate a slight variation on its glaze. This brings the piece nearer to its natural roots with which it is made up of. Variations on tone and colour are inherent in all ceramic products (those composed of clay) that are fired at high temperatures
Transit Intensity: Associated to the resistance to surface-appearance loss for tiles which are subjected to intensive traffic
Trowel: A tool that consists of an iron or steel sheet and a handle, used by fixers to spread and smooth the adhesiv
UNE 138002: 2017: Standard that defines the quality of ceramic wall tiles and aims to establish the general rules and associated processes for the design, selection of materials, preparation, installation delivery and ongoing maintenance of ceramic systems that must be contemplated in order to guarantee their quality and durability as well as their technical and aesthetic benefits.
Wall Tile: The traditional name given to a ceramic piece with high water absorption, moulded when dry, glazed and manufactured by firing
Warpage: The measurement of curvature whether concave or convex in the ceramic tile with respect to a horizontal plane.
Wastage: Quantity required for wastage due to cutting etc. If the installation is complicated or a lot of cutting is involved the amount for wastage may need to be increased 10 to 15 per cent.